Prehistoric, Historical and Industrial Archaeology

Sagebrush has extensive experience in the identification, documentation, evaluation, testing, excavation, and nomination of prehistoric, historic, and industrial archaeological sites, throughout the western United States.  

Historical Research & Documentation

Sagebrush conducts historical research for cultural resource surveys, inventories, National Register Nominations, as well as Cultural Resource Management Plans, HABS, and HAER projects.  This research is used to provide historic context and prospective for the various projects in addition to evaluations and the artifact analysis process.

Architectural/Cultural Landscape Evaluation

Sagebrush has experience in the study and evaluation of designed and cultural landscapes, as they relate to both prehistoric and historic properties.  These landscapes include farming, residential, parks, cemeteries, and other cultural landscapes.


Sagebrush has a consulting paleontologist, who specializes in paleoecology and paleogeography.  His services assist in the identification and evaluation of significant paleontological resources and the potential effects of a project on the resource.


Sagebrush has a consulting geoarchaeologist, who is a licensed geologist in the State of Utah. His services include the study of landforms and geologic processes, which assists in the evaluation process of prehistoric sites by establishing the potential for buried cultural deposits.

Historic Preservation/Resource Management Plans

Sagebrush has significant experience with historic preservation and the interpretation of commercial, industrial, domestic, and agricultural landscapes.  Such studies involve the identification, contextualization, and evaluation of architectural, industrial, and landscaping features from the historic period.  Historic preservation requires an understanding of the rural and urban details associated with the larger structures and landscapes within a particular study area.  Such details may include sidewalks, curbs and gutters, ditches and irrigation structures, driveways, fences, horse tethering rings, light fixtures, telephone poles, street signs and advertisements, livestock structures and features, mining facilities and ore processing plants, and industrial complexes.  Attention to such detail aids in the dating, evaluation, and overall understanding of our integrated environment and built landscape. Sagebrush has also completed a number of resource management plans (RMP) for reservoirs and is currently in the process of several additional RMPs for the Bureau of Reclamation.  Work at each reservoir includes completing a prehistory, history, and ethnography of the area; an inventory and evaluation of archaeological sites and historic standing structures; and undertaking Native American consultation for possible traditional cultural properties (if such was not previously done).  Management recommendations for cultural resources are then provided within the framework of a RMP.

Native American Facilitation

Native American Consultation and facilitation has become an increasingly significant part of cultural resource management studies over the last several years.  This is particularly true now with implementation of new regulations, which strengthen the requirements under 36 CFR 800.  In many cases the lead agency of a project will conduct all government-to-government consultation.  In other instances, the consultant is asked to complete the process begun by the agency.  Sagebrush has extensive experience in Native American facilitation, as well as in assessing potential Traditional Cultural Properties (TCP).  Sagebrush has facilitated with many tribes located throughout the Intermountain and Plains areas.

Environmental Assessments (EA) and Environmental Impact Studies (EIS)

As part of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) Sagebrush conducts surveys and inventories of historic properties in order to assist agencies in making a determination of eligibility for Category Exclusions (Catex), Environmental Assessments (EA), and Environmental Impact Studies (EIS).

National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) Nominations

Sagebrush Consultants has prepared a number of National Register of Historic Places nomination forms for eligible sites, buildings and districts for federal, state, and local agencies.

National Historical Preservation Act (NHPA) Section 106 Process

Sagebrush Consultants conducts surveys and inventories as part of the Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, which is legislation intended to preserve historical and archaeological sites. Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act mandates federal agencies undergo a review process for all federally funded and permitted projects that will impact sites listed on, or eligible for listing on, the National Register of Historic Places. Specifically it requires the federal agency to "take into account" the effect a project may have on historic properties. It allows interested parties an opportunity to comment on the potential impact projects may have on significant archaeological or historic sites. The main purpose for the establishment of the Section 106 review process is to minimize potential harm and damage to historic properties.

Historic American Building Survey (HABS) and Historic Engineering Record (HAER)

Sagebrush has years of experience documenting and conducting historical research on America's architectural and engineering structures. This includes large format archival photographs, which is required by HABS and HAER.